Boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian Eyring–Powell nanofluid over a moving flat plate in Darcy porous medium with a parallel free-stream: Multiple solutions and stability analysis
Two-dimensional forced convective steady boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian Eyring–Powell nanofluid over a moving plate in a porous medium in the presence of a parallel free-stream is investigated. The governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs) along with boundary conditions are transformed into a set of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using appropriate transformations. The obtained non-linear ODEs with modified boundary conditions are converted into a system of first-order ODEs whichare solved using the classical and efficient shooting method. Dual solutions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions for Eying–Powell fluids similar to Newtonian fluid in some special flow situations are obtained, when the plate and free-stream are moving along mutually opposite directions. The stability analysis of the obtained solutions is performed and it is found that the upper branch solutions are physically stable, while lowerbranch solutions are unstable. The impacts of different dimensionless physical parameters on velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are reported in the form of graphs and tables. An important result is obtained and itreveals that the ‘dual solutions’ character has been destroyed if resistance due to the porous medium is raised up to a definite level (i.e., permeability parameter K > 0.07979), though the range of existence of unique solution becomes larger with further increase of resistance due to porous medium. It is also observed that heat transfer rate diminishes with increasing thermophoresis parameter, Brownian diffusion parameter and Lewis number in all the cases, whereas mass transfer rate enhances with thermophoresis parameter (for dual solutions), Brownian diffusionparameter (for unique solutions) and Lewis number (for unique solutions). Further, skin-friction coefficient, i.e., the surface drag force, increases with permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter and decreases with Eyring–Powell fluid parameter. Also, increments in permeability parameter and the suction/injection parameter lead to the delay in the boundary layer separation. The critical values of velocity ratio parameter beyond which the boundarylayer separation appears are − 0.5476432, − 0.5987132, − 0.704862, − 0.816944, − 0.9365732, − 0.96179102, − 1.057104, − 1.062004, − 1.09222, − 1.115824, − 1.193413, − 1.591023 and − 1.898366 for K = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.074, 0.08, 0.082, 0.085, 0.09, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2, respectively.
Volume 96, 2022
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