Due to the fluctuation of membrane potential of neuron, there are complex time-varying electromagnetic fields in nervous systems, and the exciting electromagnetic field will further regulate the discharge activities of neurons. In this paper, the coupling of magnetic flux variables to the membrane potential is realised by using a magnetron memristor, and then a 5D extended Hindmarsh–Rose (e-HR) neuron model is established. With the help of Matcont software, the distribution and bifurcation properties of the equilibrium point in the e-HR model is analysed. It is found that there are subcritical Hopf bifurcation, coexisting oscillation modes and hidden limit cycle attractors with period 1 and period 2. In addition, by applying the washout controller, the subcritical Hopf bifurcation point can be transformed into the supercritical Hopf bifurcation point. Thus, the hidden oscillation behaviour of the model can be effectively eliminated. In order to analyse the influence of various parameters on the bifurcation behaviour, numerical simulation of two-parameter bifurcation, single-parameter bifurcation, maximum Lyapunov exponential and time response are given. It is found that the e-HR neuron has a complex bifurcation structure, i.e., the bifurcation structure with period-doubling bifurcations, inverse period-doubling bifurcations, period-adding bifurcations with and without chaos. At the same time, the study also finds that the coexistence behaviour of the periodic cluster discharge and the mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) can be observed from the bifurcation structure with unique ‘periodic dislocation layer’ on the two-parameter plane. Interestingly, the bursting mode of the system is converted into MMOs when the system parameters are randomly perturbed. The results of this study provide useful insights into the complex discharge patterns and hidden discharge behaviours of neurons under electromagnetic induction.
Volume 97, 2023
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