Break up of water jets under gravity is a ubiquitous phenomenon. The role of surface tension on the instability of uniform water jets was recognised long ago by Plateau and Rayleigh. According to the Plateau–Rayleigh theory, external (or internal) perturbation waves create necks and bulges all along the uniform jet length. The perturbation waves of wavelengths larger than a certain value keep growing with time and ultimately cause the continuous jet to break up into individual drops. The effect of external perturbation waves was investigated experimentally, in most cases under gravity, and found to confirm the essentials of the theory. Recently, the idea of recoil capillary waves as a possible internal source of perturbations was emphasised. According to this idea, immediately after the break up of the jet, the tip of the remaining continuous jet (after a drop is detached) recoils. Its effect travels upstream as a recoil capillary wave which gets reflected at the mouth of the jet-issuing nozzle. The reflected capillary wave travels downstream along the jet with its Doppler-shifted wavelength as a reinforcing perturbation wave and, as a result, affecting the break up length of the jet. We set up and perform an experiment to verify the existence of these tip contraction recoil capillary waves. The results of our experiment support the existence of these recoil capillary waves. However, the effect of these capillary waves on the jet break up length is found to be small.
Volume 96, 2022
Continuous Article Publishing mode
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