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    • Keywords


      Electric charge quantisation; 331 models; gauge anomalies cancellation; particles with exotic electric charges

    • Abstract


      The extensions of the Standard Model based on the $SU(3)_{C} \otimes SU(3)_{L} \otimes U(1)_{X}$ gauge group are known as 331 models. Different properties such as the fermion assignment and the electric charges of the exotic spectrum, that define a particular 331 model, are fixed by a $\beta$ parameter. In this article, we study the electric charge quantisation in two versions of the 331 models, set by the conditions $\beta = 1/(3\sqrt{3})$ and $\beta = 0$. In these frameworks, arise exotic particles, for instance, new leptons and gauge bosons with a fractional electric charge. Additionally, depending on the version, quarks with non-standard fractional electric charges or even neutral appear. Considering the definition of electric charge operator as a linear combination of the group generators that annihilates the vacuum, classical constraints from the invariance of the Lagrangian, and gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies cancellation, the quantisation of the electric charge can be verified in both versions.

    • Author Affiliations



      1. Grupo de Investigación en Física, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Av. La Fontana 550, La Molina, Lima, Peru
    • Dates

  • Pramana – Journal of Physics | News

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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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