By repeated trials, one can determine the fairness of a classical coin with a confidence which grows with the number of trials. A quantum coin can be in a superposition of heads and tails and its state is most generally a density matrix. Given a string of qubits representing a series of trials, one can measure them individually and determine the state with a certain confidence.We show that there is an improved strategy which measures the qubits after entangling them, which leads to a greater confidence. This strategy is demonstrated on the simulation facility of IBM quantum computers.
Volume 96, 2022
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