In this paper, we propose a generalised perturbation ($n, N − n$)-fold Darboux transformation (DT) of the modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) equation using the Taylor expansion and a parameter limit procedure. We apply the generalised perturbation ($1, N − 1$)-fold DT to find the new explicit higher-order rational soliton (RS) solutions in terms of determinants of the mKdV equation. These higher-order RS solutions are different from those known soliton results in terms of hyperbolic functions which are obtained from the classical iterated DT. The dynamics behaviours of the first-, second-, third-, and fourth-order RS solutions are shown graphically. The wave propagation characteristics and stability are also discussed using numerical simulations. We find that the initial constant seed solution plays an important role on the wave propagation stability of RS. Through Miura transformation, we give some complex higher-order rational solutions of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation which are different from the known results. The relevant structures also are discussed using some figures. The method used can also be extended to seek explicit rational solutions of other nonlinear integrable equations.
Volume 96, 2022
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