Stochastic evolution of the Universe: A possible dynamical process leading to fractal structures
Cosmology; stochastic equations; Fokker–Planck equation
In this paper, we propose a stochastic evolution of the early Universe which can lead to a fractal correlation in galactic distribution in the Universe. The stochastic equation of state, due to fluctuating creation rates of various components in a many-component fluid, leads to a fluctuating expansion rate for the Universe in the early epochs. It provides persistent fluctuations in the number count vs. apparent magnitude relation, as expected from the observation of a fractal distribution of the galaxies. We also present a stochastic evolution of density perturbations in the early Universe.