We use the molecular dynamics code, large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator (LAMMPS), to simulate high strain rate triaxial deformation of crystal copper to understand void nucleation and growth (NAG) within the framework of an experimentally fitted macroscopic NAG model for polycrystals (also known as DFRACT model). It is seen that void NAG at the atomistic scales for crystal copper (Cu) has the same qualitative behaviour as the DFRACT model, albeit with a different set of parameters. The effect of material temperature on the nucleation and growth of voids is studied. As the temperature increases, there is a steady decrease in the void NAG thresholds and close to the melting point of Cu, a double-dip in the pressure–time profile is observed. Analysis of this double-dip shows disappearance of the long-range order due to the creation of stacking faults and the system no longer has a face centred cubic (fcc) structure. Molecular dynamics simulation of shock in crystal Cu at strain rates high enough to cause spallation of crystal Cu are then carried out to validate the void NAG parameters. We show that the pre-history of the material affects the void nucleation threshold of the material. We also simulate high-strain-rate triaxial deformation of crystal Cu with defects and obtain void NAG parameters. The parameters are then used in a macroscale hydrodynamic simulation to obtain spallation threshold of realistic crystal Cu. It is seen that our results match experimental results within the limit of 20% error.
Volume 96, 2022
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