Applicability of total reﬂection X-ray ﬂuorescence (TXRF) spectrometry for trace elemental analysis of rainwater samples was studied. The study was used to develop these samples as rainwater standards by the National University of Singapore (NUS). Our laboratory was one of the participants to use TXRF for this study. The rainwater sample obtained from NUS was analysed by TXRF and the trace elements Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, V and Pb were determined as required by the NUS. The average precision was found to be within 16% and the TXRF-determined elemental concentrations of these elements were below $20 \mu g/l$. The average deviation of TXRFdetermined values from the certiﬁed values were 20% (excluding the deviation for Fe and V which were comparatively high). Apart from the above elements, S, K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Ba and Br were also determined by TXRF and were found to be in the range of 0.2 to 191 $\mu g/l$. TXRF-determined values of our laboratory played an important role in the certiﬁcation of concentration of seven elements in this rainwater sample which was later developed as a rainwater standard.
Volume 94, 2019
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