Trace elements have been at the focus of attention for decades with considerable emphasis on their role in biology and biomedical sciences, environmental sciences, geology, archaeology and material sciences. They comprise a large number of elements, some having essential physiological functions, whereas others are toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. A few even have antiproliferative and anticarciniogenic properties. The advent of various instrumental techniques and sophisticated instrumentations has made their detection to very low limits possible, making this a very important multidisciplinary study. Among these techniques the energy-dispersive X-ray ﬂuorescence (EDXRF) technique is being widely used for trace element detection in various ﬁelds of science. Keeping the importance of trace elements in mind, the Kolkata centre of UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientiﬁc Research initiated several research schemes in different ﬁelds of trace element research using various techniques, EDXRF being one of the main techniques. A Xenemetrix (erstwhile Jordan Valley) EX 3600 EDXRF spectrometer is being used to carry out the research. This presentation aims to highlight some of the very recent applications of EDXRF in the study of the role of trace elements in pre-cancerous tissues, medicinal plants and also in some environmental studies.