Wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence can be characterized by its advantages and drawbacks. Unbeaten spectral resolution in a range below 5 keV, good operational stability, excellent ability of making averaged analysis, and good presentation of peak shape which gives the basis for the chemical speciation are the advantages. Among the drawbacks, the following are important: system with sequential analysis of particular elements, low output of energy supplied to the device, and great cost of instrument which can be amortized only in routine operations. In routine geological and environmental analyses, the WD-XRF performs better than other simpler instrumental or wet techniques. WD-XRF is continuously improved, by applying new multilayer interference mirrors (MIM) for detection and quantiﬁcation of very light elements. Bad spectral resolution of MIM noted earlier is now improved by tailoring their shape to the shape of gratings. The progress in the long wavelength spectral region joined with efﬁcient and precise wavelength resolution systems enables the application of WD-XRF for speciation analysis. In another effort, XRF spectrometry is treated as a tool for obtaining quantitative basis for the judgement on Linnaean systematic classiﬁcation of plants and opens the ﬁeld to a new discipline – quantitative biology.
Volume 96, 2022
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