Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technique for simultaneous multi-elemental analysis of solids, liquids and gases with minute or no sample preparation and thus revolutionized the area of on-line analysis technologies. The foundation for LIBS is a solid state, short-pulsed laser that is focused on a sample to generate a high-temperature plasma, and the emitted radiation from the excited atomic and ionic fragments produced within the plasma is characteristic of the elemental composition of the sample that can be detected and analyzed using a suitable optical spectrograph. In the present paper, the applicability of LIBS for different solid samples having homogeneous (silver ornament, aluminum plate) or heterogeneous composition (soil) using nanosecond laser pulses is discussed. Nanosecond pulse laser makes plasma at the sample surface even at very low pulse energies and also allows for precise ablation of the substrate material with little damage to the surrounding area. We have also studied the penetration of different heavy metals inside the soil surface.
Volume 94, 2019
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