We have investigated the vortex dynamics for the ‘ratchet’ operation in a niobium superconductor via a direct imaging of Lorentz microscopy. We directly observe one-directional selective motion of field-gradient-driven vortices along fabricated channels. This results from the rectification of vortices in a spatially asymmetric potential under the oscillating magnetic field in a temporally symmetric manner. Based on the observation of the individual motion of vortices, we clarify the elementary process involved in this rectification.
Volume 95, 2021
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