The effect of solar features on geospheric conditions leading to geomagnetic storms (GMSs) with planetary index,AP ≥ 20 and the range of horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic fieldH such that 250γ <H < 400γ has been investigated using interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind plasma (SWP) and solar geophysical data (SGD) during the period 1978–99. Statistically, it is observed that maximum number of GMSs have occurred during the maximum solar activity years of 21st and 22nd solar cycles. A peculiar result has been observed during the years 1982, 1994 when sunspot numbers (SSNs) decrease very rapidly while numbers of GMSs increase. No distinct association between yearly occurrence of disturbed days and SSNs is observed. Maximum number of disturbed days have occurred during spring and rainy seasons showing a seasonal variation of disturbed days. No significant correlation between magnitude (intensity) of GMSs and importance ofHα, X-ray solar flares has been observed. Maximum number of GMSs is associated with solar flares of lower importance, i.e., SF during the period 1978-93.Hα, X-ray solar flares occurred within lower helio-latitudes, i.e., (0–30)°N to (0–30)°S are associated with GMSs. NoHα, X-ray solar flares have occurred beyond 40°N or 40°S in association with GMSs. In helio-latitude range (10–40)°N to (10–40)°S, the 89.5% concentration of active prominences and disappearing filaments (APDFs) are associated with GMSs. Maximum number of GMSs are associated with solar flares. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are related with eruptive prominences, solar flares, type IV radio burst and they occur at low helio-latitude. It is observed that CMEs related GMS events are not always associated with high speed solar wind streams (HSSWSs). In many individual events, the travel time between the explosion on the Sun and maximum activity lies between 58 and 118 h causing GMSs at the Earth.
Volume 95, 2021
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