We study the statistical properties and dynamics of flexible fluid membranes containing active transmembrane proteins and find that such active membranes can be either stable or unstable to small disturbances, depending on the signs of certain crucial parameters characterising the protein-membrane interaction. A major finding is that the shape-fluctuation spectrum in the stable case for a zero-tension active membrane has the same form over a large range of length scales as at equilibrium, but with a nonequilibrium “noise temperature” determined by the activity.
Volume 95, 2021
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