X-ray diffraction of the 2H-3C transformation in ZnS crystals has been studied to determine the mechanism of the phase transformation. Single crystals of 2H ZnS were annealed in vacuum at different temperatures to induce the phase transformation and then quenched to arrest it at different intermediate stages. The transformation is found to occur by the non-random nucleation of stacking faults in the 2H structure which produce characteristic diffuse steaks along reciprocal lattice rows parallel toc* for whichH−K ≠ 0 (mod 3). All the crystals finally transform to a disordered twinned 3C structure. A study of the broadening of the x-ray diffraction maxima reveals that the stacking faults involved in the transformation are basal plane deformation faults. Initially these nucleate at random producing a random distribution of cubic nuclei within the 2H structure. As the transformation proceeds these 3C nuclei grow into thick 3C regions by a preferential nucleation of the faults at 2-layer separations. Since the 3C nuclei can have twin orientations the resulting 3C structure invariably contains a random distribution of twin faults. This is confirmed by comparing the experimentally observed intensity profile of the 10.L reflections as recorded on a single crystal diffractometer, with those calculated theoretically for a randomly twinned cubic structure.
Volume 94, 2020
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