A general derivation of the coupling constant relations which result on embedding a non-simple group like SUL (2) ⇔ U(1) in a larger simple group (or graded Lie group) is given. It is shown that such relations depend only on the requirement (i) that the multiplet of vector fields form an irreducible representation of the unifying algebra and (ii) the transformation properties of the fermions under SUL (2). This point is illustrated in two ways, one by constructing two different unification groups containing the same fermions and therefore have same Weinberg angle; the other by putting different SUL (2) structures on the same fermions and consequently have different Weinberg angles. In particular the value sin2ϑ=3/8 is characteristic of the sequential doublet models or models which invoke a large number of additional leptons likeE6, while addition of extra charged fermion singlets can reduce the value of sin2 ϑ to 1/4. We point out that at the present time the models of grand unification are far from unique.
Volume 96, 2022
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