A geometric characterization of arithmetic varieties
A result of Belyi can be stated as follows. Every curve defined over a number field can be expressed as a cover of the projective line with branch locus contained in a rigid divisor. We define the notion of geometrically rigid divisors in surfaces and then show that every surface defined over a number field can be expressed as a cover of the projective plane with branch locus contained in a geometrically rigid divisor in the plane. The main result is the characterization of arithmetically defined divisors in the plane as geometrically rigid divisors in the plane.
Volume 131, 2021
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