• Ecological studies in the paper mill effluents and their impact on the river Tungabhadra: Heavy metals and algae

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    • Keywords


      Heavy metals; algae; paper mill effluents; river Tungabhadra

    • Abstract


      Certain metals have been investigated in paper mills effluent channel and in the river Tungabhadra in relation to their distribution, seasonal fluctuations and their effect, if any, on algae. The concentrations of various metals analysed are in the order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Co>Mn. In general these metals indicated an increase in their concentration along with the increase in the concentrations of chlorides, total hardness, sulphates and total alkalinity. Blue-greens and diatoms seem to be more tolerant to these ions than Chlorophyceae.Stigeoclonium exhibited very good growth at high concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel and at low concentrations of cobalt and lead.Schizomeris attained good growth when the lead concentration was high and cobalt was low.

    • Author Affiliations


      P Manikya Reddy1 V Venkateswarlu1

      1. Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 007, India
    • Dates


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