Cytopalynology of 13 species of the family Rutaceae from North and Central India do not reveal any correlation between polyploidy and pollen size. Partial pollen malformation in certain species does not seem to be due to detectable cytological reasons. Multivalent formation in some trees ofCitrus jambhiri (2n=18) is due to reciprocal translocations. The newly counted species,C. jambhiri (2n=18) and the monotypic genusLimonia (L. crenulata,n=9) and all other species except forZanthoxylum armatum (n=33) are based onx=9. Though the family is polybasic,x=9 appear to be its original based number. The chromosomal heterogeneity in the family (2n=14–162) coupled with dysploid series of base numbers (x=7–19) confirm that polyploidy and aneuploidy have played a considerable role in speciation.