Seed germination ofS. khasiana from Upper Shillong andS. wallichii from Shillong, Umsaw and Burnihat in Meghalaya, north-eastern India, and seedling establishment and growth of these species/populations in reciprocal cultivation were studied. Seeds lost viability and germinability gradually within a year when stored at 5 cm below the soil surface under natural conditions or at 20°C in the laboratory. Storage at 0°C permitted retention of 15–25% viability. Seeds germinated better on the surface layers (0–2 cm) of the soil.S. khasiana had a lower temperature optimum (15°C) of germination while the populations ofS. wallichii had a higher temperature optimum (20/25°C). At a temperature of 30°C, the lower altitude population ofS. wallichii from Burnihat gave higher germination than the high altitude population from Shillong. A given species/population ofSchima gave better seedling establishment and growth in its own natural habitat as compared to the introduced populations from the other altitudinal sites. This is indicative of the close adaptation of the natural populations to their habitat and ecotypic differentiation in this species.