The ability of prolactin to influence the responsiveness of the lactating rat pituitary to luteinising hormone releasing hormone has been examinedin vitro. The pituitary responsivenessin vivo to luteinising hormone releasing hormone decreased as a function of increase in the lactational stimulus. Prolactin inhibited the spontaneousin vitro release of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to a small extent, from the pituitary of lactating rats with the suckling stimulus. However, it significantly inhibited the release of these two hormones from luteinising hormone releasing hormone-stimulated pituitaries. The responsiveness of pituitaries of rats deprived of their litter 24 h earlier, to luteinising hormone releasing hormone was also inhibited by prolactin, although minimal. It was concluded that prolactin could be influencing the functioning of the pituitary of the lactating rat by (a) partially suppressing the spontaneous release of gonadotropin and (b) inhibiting the responsiveness of the pituitary to luteinising hormone releasing hormone.