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      https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/joaa/039/03/0032

    • Keywords

       

      Coronal mass ejections; geomagnetic storms; solar flares; geoeffectiveness; solar activity.

    • Abstract

       

      We have attempted to examine the ability of coronal mass ejections to cause geoeffectiveness. To that end, we have investigated total 571 cases of higher-speed (>1000 km/s) coronal mass ejection events observed during the years 1996–2012. On the basis of angular width (W) of observance, events of coronal mass ejection were further classified as front-side or halo coronal mass ejections (W $=$ 360$^{\circ}$); back-side halo coronal mass ejections (W = 360$^{\circ}$); partial halo (120$^{\circ}$ < W < 360$^{\circ}$) and non-halo (W < 120$^{\circ}$). From further analysis, we found that front halo coronal mass ejections were much faster and more geoeffective in comparison of partial halo and non-halo coronal mass ejections. We also inferred that the front-sided halo coronal mass ejections were 67.1% geoeffective while geoeffectiveness of partial halo coronal mass ejections and non-halo coronal mass ejections were found to be 44.2% and 56.6% respectively. During the same period of observation, 43% ofback-sided CMEs showed geoeffectiveness. We have also investigated some events of coronal mass ejections having speed >2500 km/s as a case study. We have concluded that mere speed of coronal mass ejection and their association with solar flares or solar activity were not mere criterion for producing geoeffectiveness but angular width of coronal mass ejections and their originating position also played a key role.

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