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    • Keywords

       

      bamboo; genetic diversity; genome skimming; sequence-tagged microsatellite markers; ringal; Drepanostachyum falcatum

    • Abstract

       

      Drepanostachyum falcatum (Nees) Keng f. is one of the most widely distributed shrubby bamboo species in the temperate region of northwest (NW) Himalayas. Along with the other three temperate bamboo species, namely Yushania anceps, Thamnocalamus spathiflorus and Himalayacalamus falconeri, commonly called as ‘ringal’, and utilized for making various articles of household and commercial purpose by local artisans. Despite huge ecological and socio-economic importance, they are least studied and lacks baseline genetic information. In this study, *10 Gb genome sequence data with 70.68 million reads were generated for D. falcatum, through genome skimming approach based on high throughput next-generation sequencing technology with Illumina protocol. The high-qualityreads were de novo assembled into 31,997 contigs, which comprised 1943 microsatellite repeats. The dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were most abundantly distributed in the genome with 52.95 and 41.17%, respectively. Depending on the sufficient flanking sequence, only 1123 repeats were successfully tagged with primer pairs and these sites were designated as sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers.Further, a subset of 106 STMS markers were validated through PCR amplification; 77 marker loci were successfully amplified, and 48 of these showed polymorphism. Same set of marker loci were also tested for their cross-amplification in other three temperate bamboo species of the NW Himalayas, which revealed good level of transferability (27–48%) but lesser polymorphism (4–12%). In addition, the genomewide in silico cross-amplification revealed poor cross-transferability in other bamboo taxa representing four different phylogenetic lineages, namely Phyllostachys edulis (10.2%), Bonia amplexicaulis (3.03%), Guadua angustifolia (1.60%), Olyra latifolia (0.89%) and Raddia guianensis (0.36%). Ten polymorphic markers were further used to estimate the measures of genetic diversity in two natural populations, which revealed high genetic diversity (polymorphic information content, PIC = 0.889; expected heterozygosity, He = 0.756)and low genetic differentiation (FST=0.061; Nm = 5.445). To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the pioneer studies carried out for the development of genomic STMS markers through genome skimming approach in Indian bamboo species. The marker information generated here is novel and of paramount importance for future genetic studies in D. falcatum as well as other temperate bamboo species through cross-transferability.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      RAJENDRA K. MEENA1 NITIKA NEGI1 NAVENDRA UNIYAL1 RAJESH SHARMA RAJESHSHARMA2 HARISH S. GINWAL1

      1. Division of Genetics and Tree Improvement, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248 195, India
      2. 2Division of Genetics and Tree Improvement, Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla 171 013, India
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