Spirometry based measurement of lung function is a global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) standard to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Theenvironmental and behavioural risk factors for COPD includes tobacco smoking, air pollutants and biomass fuel exposure, which can induce one or more abnormal lung function patterns. While smoking remains the primary risk factor, only 15–20% smokers develop COPD, indicating that the genetic factors are also likely to play a role. According to the study of Global Burden of Disease 2015, ∼174 million people across the world have COPD. From a comprehensive literature search conducted using the ‘PubMed’ and ‘GWAS Catalogue’ databases, and reviewing the literature available, only a limited number of studies were identified which hadattempted to investigate the genetics of COPD and lung volumes, implying a huge research gap. With the advent of genomewide association studies several genetic variants linked to lung function and COPD, like HHIP, HTR4, ADAM19 and GSTCD etc., have been found and validated in different population groups, suggesting their potential role in determining lung volume and risk for COPD. This article aims at reviewing the present knowledge of the genetics of lung function and COPD.
Volume 99, 2020
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