Obesity is one of the largest global health problems associated with increased morbidity and mortality mediated by its association with several other metabolic disorders. The interaction between the genes and environment plays an important role in the manifestation of obesity. Despite a high heritability (40–70%) of obesity, the search for genetic variants associated with obesity susceptibility has been a challenging task. To date, limited studies have been conducted in India, restricted to the validation of few genetic variants identified by genomewide association studies. In this critical review, we sought to examine the current knowledge ofgenetic basis of obesity and its measures in the Indian population. A comprehensive literature search was performed using ‘PubMed’, ‘Medline’ and ‘IndMed’ databases to search for citations published until 31st May 2017, using the key terms as ‘Genetics’ AND ‘obesity’ AND ‘India’. We identified 48 potential studies which fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The findings indicated thatFTO , MC4R, TNF-α, PPAR-γ , UCP1, UCP2, LPL, LEPR, AMD1, IL6, APOE, ADIPOQ, DOK5, INSIG2, PBEF1, IL6R, Myostatin, CXCR4, HHEX, IRX3, POMC, NGN3, FOXA2, MTR, TCN and CHDH are some of the important genes studied among the Indian population. Importantly, the role of sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of obesity and body fat distribution was also reported in a few studies. Further, seven biological pathways have been identified that contribute to obesity pathogenesis in India. In conclusion, further exploration of pathway-based research on genetics of obesity can be useful for better understanding thepathophysiology of obesity in India.
Volume 99, 2020
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