Evolutionary, interaction and expression analysis of floral meristem identity genes in inflorescence induction of the second crop in two-crop-a-year grape culture system
The fruitfulness of grapevines (Vitis viniferaL.) is determined to a large extent by the differentiation of uncommitted meristems, especially in the second-crop production of some varieties, where the intermediate of inflorescence and tendril accounts for a significant proportion in two-crop-a-year grape culture system. The differentiation of uncommitted lateral meristem was reported to be regulated by a network, whose backbone was composed of several floral meristem identity genes. In the present study, the phylogenetics of grape floral meristem identity genes with their orthologues in other species, and their conserved domain andinteraction networks were analysed. In addition, the effects of chlormequat chloride and pinching treatments on the expression profiles of floral meristem identity genes and content of gibberellic acid (GAs) and zeatin riboside (ZR), as well as the ratio of ZR/GAs in buds that were used to produce the second crop, and the ratio of inflorescence induction of the second crop were studiedin ‘Summer Black’. The present results showed that floral meristem identity genes of grape and their orthologues in one or more among Malus domastic, Citrus sinensis, Theobroma cacao, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum lycopersicum and Glycine hirsutum, probably originated from a common ancestor. Interaction networks of six grape-floral meristem identity genes indicated that the inflorescence induction and floral development were regulated by one more complex network, and expression profiles of genes that involved in thisnetwork could be affected by each other. Expression profiles of eight floral meristem identity genes were affected by chlormequat chloride and pinching treatments, and higher expression levels of FT, TFL1A and TFL1B, as well as lower expression levels of LFY from 3 days before full bloom to 11 days after full bloom were thought to play important roles in promoting the formation of inflorescence primordial of the second crop, and higher expression levels of CAL A, SOC1and TFL1A at 18 days after full bloom (DAF) could promote the development of inflorescence primordial. In addition, lower ratio of ZR/GAs at 3 days before full bloom and 4 days after full bloom could promote the formation of uncommitted lateral meristems in chlormequat chloride and pinching-treatedplants, and higher ratio at 11 days after full bloom was the main reason for the formation of more inflorescences after chlormequat chloride treatment.
Volume 100, 2021
Continuous Article Publishing mode
Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode