To understand the variation in genomic composition and its effect on codon usage, we performed the comparative analysis of codon usage and nucleotide usage in the genes of three dicots, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula. The dicot genes were found to be A/T rich and have predominantly A-ending and/or T-ending codons. GC3s directly mimic theusage pattern of global GC content. Relative synonymous codon usage analysis suggests that the high usage frequency of A/T over G/C mononucleotide containing codons in AT-rich dicot genome is due to compositional constraint as a factor of codon usage bias. Odds ratio analysis identified the dinucleotides TpG, TpC, GpA, CpA and CpT as over-represented, where, CpG and TpA as under-represented dinucleotides. The results of (NcExp−NcObs)/NcExp plot suggests that selection pressure other than mutation played a significant role in influencing the pattern of codon usage in these dicots. PR2 analysis revealed the significant role of selection pressure on codon usage. Analysis of varience on codon usage at start and stop site showed variation in codon selection in these sites. This study provides evidence that the dicot genes were subjected to compositional selection pressure.
Volume 101, 2022
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