• Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of phylotype I, Indian Ralstonia solanacearum strains Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244

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    • Keywords


      bacterial wilt; type III effector; virulence factor; phylogenetic analysis; Ralstonia solanacearum

    • Abstract


      Ralstonia solanacearum is a well-known phytopathogen causing bacterial wilt in a large number of agriculturally important crops. The pathogenicity of R. solanacearum is expressed due to the presence of various virulence factors and effector proteins. In this study, various virulence factors and type III effector proteins of R. solanacearum that are present in the strains Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 were identified through bioinformatics approach and compared with other reference strains. R. solanacearum strains, Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 belong to the phylotype I, biovar3, and are the only sequenced strains from India infecting solanaceous vegetables. Similarity matrix obtained by comparing the sequences of virulence genes of Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 with other reference strains indicated that Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 share more than 99% similarity between them and are closely related to GMI1000. The virulence factors in R. solanacearum appear to be highly conserved in the R. solanacearum species complex. Rs-09-161 has 72 type III effectors whereas Rs-10-244 has 77. Comparison of the complete genes of type III effectors of Rs-09-161,Rs-10-244 andGMI1000 revealed the presence of 60 common effectors within them. Further,Rs-09-161 has two unique effectors and Rs-10-244 has four unique effectors. Phylogenetic trees of RipA, RipG, RipH and RipS effector sequences resulted in the grouping of the isolates based on their phylotypes. Group 1 consists of strains that belong to phylotype I including Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244. Phylotype III strain CMR15 forms a group closely associated with phylotype I. The strains belonging to phylotypes II and IV have separated to form two different groups.

    • Author Affiliations



      1. Department of Microbiology, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau 403 206, India
      2. ICAR-Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Old Goa 403 402, India
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