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    • Keywords


      auxin response factor; gene family; Malus domestica.

    • Abstract


      Auxin response factors (ARF) are transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in plants. Although the genomewide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding ARF genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 31 putative apple ARF genes have been identified and located within the apple genome. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that MdARFs could be divided into three subfamilies (groups I, II and III). The predicted MdARFs were distributed across 15 of 17 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the analysis of exon–intron junctions and of the intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Expression profile analyses of MdARF genes were performed in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit), and all the selected genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues that were tested, which indicated that MdARFs are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes of apple. To our knowledge, this report is the first to provide a genomewide analysis of the apple ARF gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the ARF signal in apple.

    • Author Affiliations


      Xiao-Cui Luo1 Mei-Hong Sun1 Rui-Rui Xu2 Huai-Rui Shu1 Jai-Wei Wang3 Shi-Zhong Zhang1

      1. State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, People’s Republic of China
      2. Key Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Biology in University of Shandong,Weifang University, Weifang, Shandong 261061, People’s Republic of China
      3. Key Laboratory for Fruit Biotechnology Breeding of Shandong Province, Shandong Institute of Pomology, Taian, Shandong 271000, People’s Republic of China
    • Dates

    • Supplementary Material

  • Journal of Genetics | News

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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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