Selection at linked sites has important consequences for the properties of neutral variation and for tests of the predictions of the neutral theory of molecular evolution. We review the theory of the effect of adaptive gene substitutions on neutral variability at linked sites (hitchhiking or selective sweeps) and discuss theoretical results on the effect of selection against deleterious alleles on variation at linked sites (background selection). InDrosophila melanogaster there is a clear relation between the frequency of recombination in a given region of the chromosome and the amount of natural variability in that region. Attempts to predict this relation have given rise to models of selective sweeps and background selection. We describe possible methods of discriminating between these models, and also discuss the probable strong influence of selective sweeps on variation in largely nonrecombining genomes, with particular reference toEscherichia coll. Finally we present some unresolved questions and possible directions for future research.
Volume 99, 2020
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