The present investigations on the chromosome study of ten Indian representatives ofViola have revealed interesting data from cytotaxonomical and cytoecological standpoints. The existence of two distinctly different chromosome series in the same species, rather uncommon for this genus, has been recorded inV.serpens (2n= 18 and 48) andV. biflora (2n = 12 and 20). Such intraspecific variations imply that differences in numerical series of chromosomes should not necessarily play an important role in categorizing species assemblages. They have also been noted inV. tricolor (2n = 42 and 46) and polyploid cytotypes have been recorded inV. hookeri (n = 9 and 36). On the basis of chromosome data, it has been stated that the retention ofV. odorata andV. tricolor under the section Erpetion as followed by Engler and Prantl, is not desirable. De Candolle in his system kept the two genera under two separate sections. Remarkable similarity betweenV. serpens ( 2n = 18 and 48) andV. distans ( 2n = 44) in chromosome morphology has been shown.
From a study of the chromosomes of different ecotypes it has been shown that inViola extreme climatic conditions are tolerated by diploids, whereas the polyploids abound in comparatively moderate climate, which is rather uncommon for other genera.
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