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      https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/131/0211

    • Keywords

       

      Mesoscale modelling; tropical cyclone; rapid intensiBcation; vortical advection; vortex stretching; asymmetrisation; axisymmetrisation.

    • Abstract

       

      The life cycle dynamics and intensification processes of three long-duration tropical cyclones (TCs), viz., Fani (2019), Luban (2018), and Ockhi (2017) formed over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) have been investigated by developing a high-resolution (6 km ${\times}$ 6 km) mesoscale analysis using WRF and En3DVAR data assimilation system. The release of CAPE in nearly saturated middle-level relative humidity caused intense diabatic heating, leading to an increase in low-level convergence triggering rapid intensification (RI). The strengthening of the relative vorticity tendency terms was due to vertical stretching (TC Fani) and middle tropospheric advection (TCs Luban and Ockhi). The increase or decrease in uppertropospheric divergence led to RI through two different mechanisms. The increase in upper divergence strengthens the vortical convection (in TC Luban and Fani) by enhancing the moisture and heat transport, whereas its decrease caused a reduction in the upper-level ventilation flow at 200 hPa followed by moisture accumulation, enhanced diabatic heating, and strengthened the warm core (TC Ockhi). The RI caused the vortex of three cyclones to extend up to the upper troposphere. The well organised wind during RI led the unorganised, weak, discontinuous vertical vortex columns to become organised with intense vertical velocity throughout the column. Spatial distributions of Okubo–Wiess (OW) parameter showed TC core dominated by vorticity than strain, since deep depression (DD) stages.

      $\bf{Highlights}$

      $\bullet$ The saturated middle-level relative humidity caused intense diabatic heating, and then release of CAPE led to a rise in low-level spin-up triggering the RI.

      $\bullet$ The strengthening of the relative vorticity tendency terms was due to stretching (TC Fani) and middle tropospheric advection (TCs Luban and Ockhi).

      $\bullet$ The increase or decrease in upper-tropospheric divergence led to RI through two different mechanisms.

      $\bullet$ The RI caused the vortex of three cyclones to extend up to the upper troposphere.

      $\bullet$ RI led unorganised, weak, discontinuous vertical vortex columns to become organised with intense vertical velocity throughout the column.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      ARPITA MUNSI1 2 AMIT KESARKAR1 JYOTI BHATE1 KASTURI SINGH1 ABHISHEK PANCHAL1 GOVINDAN KUTTY2 RAMKUMAR GIRI3

      1. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Space, Govt. of India, Gadanki, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh 517 112, India.
      2. Indian Institute of Space Technology, Valaimala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547, India.
      3. India Meteorological Department, Mausam Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India.
    • Dates

       
  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

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