Discovering and locating the source and availability of groundwater in a plateau region of Chhotanagpur gneissic complex, where there is a varied hydrogeological characteristics, is a crucial task for earth scientists. One such region located at Garh Khatanga near Ranchi, Jharkhand, India was closely studied for groundwater assessment and exploration. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography 2D data were acquired to probe deep inside the earth up to a maximum depth of 220 m using state-of-the-art electrical resistivity tomography technique and mapped geoelectrical subsurface images at 16 sites in three different blocks along a 7.2 km line for prospecting and exploration of groundwater resources. The geophysical inversion of the 2D resistivity data revealed prospect groundwater scenario at six sites based on the hydrogeological interpretation and the significant resistivity contrast between the highly weathered/fractured and the massive rocks. The modelled resistivity sections revealed different degree of weathered, fractured and saturated weathered/fractured strata as well as clearly indicated the presence of a totally hard massive rock within the subsurface lying between $\sim$30 and 220 m depths. The geophysical anomalies were confirmed and validated by borehole drilling at four sites up to a maximum depth of 215 m with yields ranging from 2.0 to 4.25 inch, which is equivalent to 5632–63769 l/hr of groundwaterexploitation. These yields of groundwater resources are rated as good aquifer(s) in the plateau region of Chhotanagpur gneissic complex. The characteristics resistivity for fracture zone varies from 140 to 1300 $\Omega$m, while for saturated weathered/fractured it ranges from 10 to 1000 $\Omega$m. On joint interpretation of the 2D resistivity models and the borehole lithology data, it clearly shows the average resistivity of the aquifer zone lies in the range 50–500 $\Omega$m. The present study along with the conceptual geological models provided a sound knowledge of hard rock hydrogeology in the plateau region with complex geological settings and these helped to achieve significant results for groundwater exploration and development of the resources of the studied area as well as take up such challenging work in exploring the prospect groundwater resources in other similar geological setting of the country.
Volume 130, 2021
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