• Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal Higher Himalaya, India: Implication on the nature of felsic magmatism in the collision tectonics

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    • Keywords


      Mineralogy; geochemistry; petrogenesis; granitoids; Himachal Higher Himalaya

    • Abstract


      Felsic magmatism in the southern part of Himachal Higher Himalaya is constituted by Neoproterozoic granite gneiss (GGn), Early Palaeozoic granitoids (EPG) and Tertiary tourmaline-bearing leucogranite (TLg). Magnetic susceptibility values ($\lt$3 ×10$^{−3}$ SI), molar Al$_2$O$^3$/(CaO+Na$_2$O+K$_2$O) ($\geq$1.1), mineral assemblage (bt–ms–pl–kf–qtz ± tur ± ap), and the presence of normative corundum relate these granitoids to peraluminous S-type, ilmenite series (reduced type) granites formed in a syncollisional tectonic setting. Plagioclase from GGn (An$_{10}$–An$_{31}$) and EPG (An$_{15}$–An$_{33}$) represents oligoclase to andesine and TLg (An$_2$–An$_{15}$) represents albite to oligoclase, whereas compositional ranges of K-feldspar are more or less similar (Or$_{88}$ to Or$_{95}$ in GGn, Or$_{86}$ to Or$_{97}$ in EPG and Or$_{87}$ to Or$_{94}$ in TLg). Biotites in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.34–0.45), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.27–0.47), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.25–0.30) are ferribiotites enriched in siderophyllite, which stabilised between FMQ and HM buffers and are characterised by dominant 3Fe$\rightleftarrows$2Al, 3Mg$\rightleftarrows$2Al substitutions typical of peraluminous (S-type), reducing felsic melts. Muscovite in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.58–0.66), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.31−0.59), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fet = 0.29–0.42) represent celadonite and paragonite solid solutions, and the tourmaline fromEPG and TLg belongs to the schorl-elbaite series, which are characteristics of peraluminous, Li-poor, biotite-tourmaline granites. Geochemical features reveal that the GGn and EPG precursor melts were most likely derived from melting of biotite-rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources, whereas TLg melt appears to have formed from biotite-muscovite rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources. Major and trace elements modelling suggest that the GGn, EPG and TLg parental melts have experienced low degrees (∼13, ∼17 and ∼13%, respectively) of kf–pl–bt fractionation, respectively, subsequent to partial melting. The GGn and EPG melts are the results of a pre-Himalayan, syn-collisional Pan-African felsicmagmatic event, whereas the TLg is a magmatic product of Himalayan collision tectonics.

    • Author Affiliations


      Brajesh Singh1 Santosh Kumar1 Masao Ban2 Kazuo Nakashima2

      1. Department of Geology, Kumaun University, Nainital 263 002, Uttarakhand, India.
      2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Yamagata University, 990 8560, Yamagata, Japan.
    • Dates

  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

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