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    • Keywords


      Entropy; spatial-trends; temporal-trends; disorder index

    • Abstract


      Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainydays for each selected station. Intensity entropy and apportionment entropy were used to calculate thevariability over individual year and decade, respectively. Subsequently, Spearman’s Rho and Mann–Kendall tests were applied to observe for trends in the precipitation time series. The statistics of sampledisorder index showed that the precipitation during February (mean 1.09, max. 1.26 and min. 0.80),April (mean 1.12, max. 1.29 and min. 0.99) and July (mean 1.10, max. 1.20 and min. 0.98) contributedsignificantly higher than those of other months. Overall, the contribution of the winter season wasconsiderably high with a standard deviation of 0.10. The precipitation variability on decade basis wasobserved to increase from decade 1964–1973 and 1994–2003 with a mean value of decadal apportionmentdisorder index 0.023 and 0.053, respectively. In addition, the Mann–Kendall test value (1.90) showed asignificant positive trend only at the Shangzhi station.

    • Author Affiliations


      Muhammad Imran Khan1 Dong Liu1 Qiang Fu1 Muhammad Azmat2 3 Mingjie Luo1 Yuxiang Hu1 Yongjia Zhang1 Faiz M Abrar1

      1. School of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin Heilongjiang 150030, China; Key Laboratory of Water-Saving Agriculture of Universities in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin Heilongjiang 150030, China and Key Laboratory of High Efficient Utilization of Agricultural Water Resource of Ministry of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin Heilongjiang 150030, China.
      2. Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering (DIATI), Politecnico Di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.
      3. Institute of Geographical Information Systems (IGIS), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    • Dates

  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

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