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    • Keywords


      Tropical cyclone; landfall; North Indian Ocean; error.

    • Abstract


      India Meteorological Department (IMD) introduced the objective tropical cyclone (TC) track forecast valid for next 24 hrs over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) in 2003. It further extended the validity period up to 72 hrs in 2009. Here an attempt is made to evaluate the TC landfall forecast issued by IMD during 2003–2013 (11 years) by calculating the landfall point forecast error (LPE) and landfall time forecast error (LTE).

      The average LPE is about 67, 95, and 124 km and LTE is about 4, 7, and 2 hrs, respectively for 24, 48, and 72-hr forecasts over the NIO as a whole during 2009–2013. The accuracy of TC landfall forecast has been analysed with respect to basin of formation (Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and NIO as a whole), specific regions of landfall, season of formation (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons), intensity of TCs (cyclonic storm (CS), and severe cyclonic storm (SCS) or higher intensities) at the time of initiation of forecast and type of track of TCs (climatological/straight moving and recurving/looping type). The LPE is less over the BOB than over the AS for all forecast lengths up to 72 hrs. Similarly, the LPE is less during the post-monsoon season than during pre-monsoon season. The LPEs are less for climatologically moving/straight moving TCs than for the recurving/looping TCs.

      The LPE over the NIO has decreased at the rate of about 14.5 km/year during 2003–2013 for 24-hr forecasts. The LTE does not show any significant improvement for 24-hr forecast during the same period. There is significant decrease in LPE and LTE during 2009–2013 compared to 2003–2008 due to the modernisation programme of IMD. The 24-hr LPE and LTE have decreased from 157.5 to 66.5 km and 7.8 to 4.1 hrs, respectively. However, there is still scope for further reduction in 48 and 72-hr forecast errors over the NIO to about 50 and 100 km respectively based on the latest technology including aircraft reconnaissance, deployment of buoys, and assimilation of more observational data from satellite and Doppler weather radars, etc., in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models during the next five years.

    • Author Affiliations


      M Mohapatra1 D P Nayak1 Monica Sharma1 R P Sharma1 B K Bandyopadhyay1

      1. India Meteorological Department, Mausam Bhavan, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India.
    • Dates

  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

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