Loss of life and property that may occur as a result of a possible earthquake can be reduced by earthquake resistant building designs. In order to investigate possible ground motion amplification in earthquake resistant building design, relationship between the ground and engineering bedrock must be ensured. In order to provide this relation, structure, basic characteristics, and thickness of the ground are investigated. In this context, calculating ground transfer function, obtaining horizontal earthquake acceleration changes, calculating $V_s$ values and defining the engineering bedrock are necessary. In this study, Menemen plain, the nothern part of Izmir metropolitan located in active earthquake zone and its immediate vicinity have been examined to define the structure, ground, engineering and bedrock relation. In this context, Menemen plain has been investigated by geophysical methods, which are supported with borehole data (microtremor, MASW – multichannel analysis of surface waves, microgravity measurements, and vertical electrical sounding – VES). Microtremor method was conducted at 377 points in average in the investigation area to define fundamental period and empirical transfer function; after that in order to create basin model and to define the shallow subsurface geometry, microgravity measurements were carried out by using Scintrex CG-5. Also, MASW measurements were carried out in approximately 277 profiles and Schlumberger VES measurements were conducted at approximately 7 points in the investigation area. The existence of a linear relation between H/V peak period values obtained by microtremor measurements and ground thickness in the investigation area is also supported by geothermal drilling logs (depth of 600 m) with microgravity survey. Also, in some parts of the investigation area, it was observed that high 𝑆 velocity $(V_s)$ values affected H/V peak period values in sections of the ground close to the surface and there was an inversely correlated relation between this ground thickness and peak period values. This event occurring in shallow depths is supported by both VES sections and 2nd order vertical gravity derivative. As a result, depth of the engineering bedrock was obtained between 200 and 700 m and this unit was proposed as Bornova Melange for the investigation area in the scope of the works carried out. Also, it is observed that the area from ground to the engineering bedrock consists of four different layers which were defined by individual 𝑆 velocities and densities. According to all results, characterictics of the shallow subsurface show that there is a high heterogeneity. Therefore, according to Eurocode8 (EC8 2004) regulations, soil characteristic of the Menemen plain and its vicinity are in the S1–S2 soil class.
Volume 130, 2021
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