The South India Precambrian crust and shallow lithospheric mantle: Initial results from the India Deep Earth Imaging Experiment (INDEX)
We present here the most comprehensive study of the thickness and composition ($Vp/Vs$ ratio) of the South India Precambrian crust and the nature of shallower mantle inferred from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions from 70 broad-band seismic stations operated as a part of the India Deep Earth Imaging Experiment (INDEX). South India could be broadly divided into regions with thin crust (32–38 km) and thick crust (38–54 km). Thin crust domains include the East Dharwar Craton (EDC), Cuddapah basin and Madurai/Kerala Khondalite Block. The thicker crust domain includes the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) and northern part of Southern Granulite Terrain. The WDC shows progressive increase in thickness from 38 km in north to 46–54 km in south, compared to an almost flat Moho beneath the EDC. Compositionally, most of the crustal domains are felsic to intermediate ($Vp/Vs$ ∼ 1.69–1.75) except the mid Archean block in the southern WDC where it is mafic ($Vp/Vs$ < 1.81). Considering erosion depth in the WDC, we argue for Himalaya like ∼70 km thick crust beneath it during the Archean. Variation in crustal thickness does not have a first-order influence on regional topography in South India and suggests significant role for the crustal composition. We also present evidence of mid-lithospheric low velocity at ∼85–100 km beneath South India.
Volume 129, 2020
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