A set of large deformation experiments are presented to simulate folding pattern at various energy states during formation. In order to numerically simulate this phenomenon, a rectangular layer of shale is generated and compressed at various strain rates. The results reveal the variation in distribution of stress along the length of the bed. The stress distribution during elastic behaviour of shale bed at low compression rate and the change in stress distribution leading to rupture at high compression rates is discussed. Wavelength, limb length, bulk shortening, stress distribution, displacement of particles along the length of the bed is considered for comparative study of the fold pattern generated at various compression rates. The nature and position of crack generated during the formation of fold is also explained. After rupture in shale bed, the generation of fault and stress distribution in limbs of fold sliding over one another is also described.
Volume 131, 2022
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