Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature in the tropopause region over India
R Sapra S K Dhaka V Panwar R Bhatnagar K Praveen Kumar Y Shibagaki M Venkat Ratnam M Takahashi
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Relationship of outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) with convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature at the 100-hPa pressure level is examined using daily radiosonde data for a period 1980–2006 over Delhi (28.3° N, 77.1°E) and Kolkata (22.3°N, 88.2°E), and during 1989–2005 over Cochin (10°N, 77°E) and Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77.0°E), India. Correlation coefficient ($R_xy$) between monthly OLR and CAPE shows a significant (∼ −0.45) anti-correlation at Delhi and Kolkata suggesting low OLR associated with high convective activity during summer (seasonal variation). Though, no significant correlation was found between OLR and CAPE at Cochin and Trivandrum (low latitude region); analysis of OLR and temperature (at 100-hPa) association suggests that low OLR peaks appear corresponding to low temperature at Delhi ($R_xy$ ∼0.30) and Kolkata ($R_xy$ ∼0.25) during summer. However, $R_xy$ between OLR and temperature becomes opposite as we move towards low latitudes (∼8° $–$10°N) due to strong solar cycle influence. Large scale components mainly ENSO and quasi-biennial oscillaton (QBO) that contributed to the 100-hPa temperature variability were also analyzed, which showed that ENSO variance is larger by a factor of two in comparison to QBO over Indian region. ENSO warm conditions cause warming at 100-hPa over Delhi and Darwin. However, due to strong QBO and solar signals in the equatorial region, ENSO signal seems less effective. QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle contribution in temperature are found location-dependent (latitudinal variability) responding in consonance with shifting in convective activity regime during El Niño, seasonal variability in the tropical easterly jet, and the solar irradiance.
R Sapra1 2 S K Dhaka1 V Panwar2 3 R Bhatnagar1 2 K Praveen Kumar4 Y Shibagaki5 M Venkat Ratnam6 M Takahashi7
Volume 132, 2023
Continuous Article Publishing mode
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