The development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer over the Arabian Sea during the Intensive Field Phase of the Indian Ocean Experiment (1999) is investigated. A hypothesis for the generation of the pollution gradient is presented. Infrared satellite images show the formation of the pollution gradient as the leading edge of a polluted air mass in the marine boundary layer and also its propagation over the Arabian Sea and the northern Indian Ocean. Aerosol data measured from two research vessels over the Arabian Sea show a variation in the concentrations caused by the passage of this pollution gradient. Depth of the pollution gradient was found to be about 800 m. A numerical model was used to simulate the development of this gradient and its propagation over the ocean. Results show that its formation and structure are significantly influenced by the diurnal cycle of coastal sea-land breeze circulations along India’s west coast. Transport of aerosols and gases over the Arabian Sea in the lower troposphere from land sources appears to be through this mechanism with the other being the elevated land plume.
Volume 131, 2022
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