• Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that are indicators of the magnitude of the air-sea gas transfer coefficient

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      https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/111/03/0315-0319

    • Keywords

       

      Whitecaps; air-sea exchange; gas transfer coefficient; breaking waves; microwave brightness temperature; microwave emissivity

    • Abstract

       

      Stage A whitecaps (spilling wave crests) have a microwave emissivity of close to 1. Thus if even a small fraction of the sea surface is covered by these features there will be a detectable enhancement in the apparent microwave brightness temperature of that surface as determined by satellite-borne microwave radiometers. This increase in the apparent microwave brightness temperature can as a consequence be routinely used to estimate the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps. For all but the very lowest wind speeds it has been shown in a series of controlled experiments that the air-sea gas transfer coefficient for each of a wide range of gases, including carbon dioxide and oxygen, is directly proportional to the fraction of the sea surface covered by these stage A whitecaps.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      E C Monahan1

      1. University of Connecticut, Avery Point, Groton, Connecticut - 06340-6097, USA
    • Dates

       
  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

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