The rare earth element (REE) contents of sixteen surficial calcareous sediments from the southwestern Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean, have been determined. The total REE vary from 35 ppm to 126 ppm and are inversely related to the calcium carbonate content. REEs show a strong positive correlation with Al + Fe + K + Mg + Na (r2= 0.98) and Mn + Fe + Cu + Ni (r2= 0.86) suggesting that the REE is associated with a combined phase of clays (mainly illite) and Mn-Fe oxyhydroxides. The aeolian input into these sediments is suggested from the weak positive Eu/Eu* anomaly. Shale-normalized (NASC) pattern along with La(n)/Yb(n) ratio suggest enrichment of heavy REE (HREE) relative to the light REE (LREE) with a negative Ce/Ce* anomaly implying retention of a bottom water REE pattern.