Evolution of India’s monsoon climate through geological times
Using the theory of plate tectonics and a concept of climate analogs, the paper speculates that a monsoon type of climate with warm and wet summer and cold and dry winter might have first appeared over the northern part of India when during its northward drift across the Tethys Ocean (now the Indian Ocean) it was located over the subtropical belt of the southern hemisphere some 60 million years before present (BP). The monsoon climate gradually evolved and extended to other parts of India as the Indian plate after crossing the equator about SO million years BP moved further northward and collided against the north Asian plate giving rise to the Himalayas along the northern boundary of India some 40 million years BP. Recent studies suggest that despite short and long period fluctuations, no major secular change or trend has taken place in the monsoon climate of India since then.
Volume 128 | Issue 8
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