• Structural studies in the Pre-Vindhyan rocks of Rajasthan: A summary of work of the last three decades

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    • Keywords

       

      Multiple deformation; conjugate folds; deformed lineation; Banded Gneissic Complex; Aravalli Group; Delhi Group

    • Abstract

       

      Multiple deformation in all the Precambrian metamorphic-migmatitic rocks has been reported from Rajasthan during the last three decades. But, whereas the Aravalli Group and the Banded Gneissic Complex show similarity in the style and sequence of structures in all their details, the rocks of the Delhi Group trace a partly independent trend. Isoclinal folds of the first generation (AF1) in the rocks of the Aravalli Group had gentle westerly plunge prior to later deformations. These folds show reclined, inclined, and upright attitude as a result of coaxial upright folding (AFla). Superposition of upright folds (AF2) of varying tightness, with axial plane striking N to NNE, has resulted in interference patterns of diverse types in the scale of maps, and deformation of earlier planar and linear structures in the scale of hand specimens. The structures of the third generation (AF3) are either open recumbent folds or reclined conjugate folds with axial planes dipping gently towards NE or SW. Structures of the last phase are upright conjugate folds (AF4) with axial planes striking NNE-SSW and E-W.

      The Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) underlies the Aravalli Group with a conglomerate horizon at the contact, especially in southern Rajasthan. But, for a major part of central and southern Rajasthan, migmatites representing BGC show a structural style and sequence identical with those in the Aravalli Group. Migmatization, broadly synkinematic with the AF1 folding, suggests extensive remobilization of the basement. Very rare relict fabric athwart to and overprinted by structures of AF, generation provide tangible evidence for a basement.

      Although the structures of later phases in the rocks of the Delhi Group (DF3 and DF4) match with the late-phase structures in the Aravalli Group (AF3 and AF4), there is a contrast in the structural history of the early stages in the rocks of the two groups. The folds of the first generation in the Delhi Group (DF1) were recumbent to reclined with gentle plunge towards N to NNE or S to SSW. These were followed by coaxial upright folds of varying tightness (DF2). Absence of westerly trending AF1 folds in the Delhi Group, and extreme variation in plunge of the AF2 folds in contrast with the fairly constant plunge of the DF2 folds, provide evidence for an angular unconformity between the Aravalli and the Delhi Groups.

      Depending on the importance of flattening attendant with and following buckling during AF2 deformation, the lineations of AF1 generation show different patterns. Where the AF1 lineations are distributed in circular cones around AF2 axes because of flexural-slip folding in layered rocks with high viscosity contrast, loci of early lineations indicate that the initial orientation of the AF1 axes were subhorizontal, trending towards N280°.

      The orientation of the axial planes of the earlier folds has controlled the development of the later folds. In sectors where the AF, axial planes had N-S strike and gentle dips, or E-W strike with gentle to steep dips, nearly E-W horizontal compression during AF2 deformation resulted in well-developed AF2 folds. By contrast, where the AF, axial planes were striking nearly N-S with steep dips, E-W horizontal compression resulted in tightening (flattening) of the already isoclinal AF1 folds, and probably boudinage structures in some instances, without the development of any AF2 folds. A similar situation obtains when DF4 deformation is superposed on earlier structures. Where the dominant S-planes were subhorizontal, N-S compression during DF4 deformation resulted in either chevron folds with E-W striking axial plane or conjugate folds with axial plane striking NE and NW. In zones with S-planes striking E-W and dipping steeply, the N-S compression resulted in flattening of the earlier folds without development of DF4 folds.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      K Naha1 S Mohanty2

      1. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721302, India
      2. Department of Applied Geology, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad - 826004, India
    • Dates

       
  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

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