Relativistic quantum chemistry and rigorous variational analysis
A brief review of relativistic quantum chemistry is given here. Relativistic effects and their importance in chemistry are discussed. An outline of different theoretical aspects is presented. Aspects of variation techniques relevant to relativistic calculations are discussed in detail. These involve the derivation of min-max theorems for Dirac, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Coulomb calculations. The consequence of relativistic Hamiltonians being unbounded are also discussed for other lines of investigation. The upper bounds derived are physically interpreted. Sample Dirac-Hartree-Fock results for the Be atom, calculated using both STO and GTO bases for the nonrelativistic orbitals and the upper components of the relativistic orbitals, are given. The inadequacy of the so-called kinetically balanced basis set is discussed and illustrated with these results. The importance of the variational or dynamical balance and hence the merit of the LCAS-MS scheme is pointed out. The possibility of calculating quantum electrodynamical pair energy from relativistic configuration interaction calculations on a two-electron atom is discussed and exemplified. The present status of relativistic molecular calculations is briefly reviewed. Conclusions on the aspects of variational analysis and molecular calculations are enclosed.
Volume 135, 2023
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