The use of paramagnetic probes in membrane research is reviewed. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on model and biological membranes doped with covalent and non-covalent spin-labels have been discussed with special emphasis on the methodology and the type of information obtainable on several important phenomena like membrane fluidity, lipid flip-flop, lateral diffusion of lipids, lipid phase separation, lipid bilayer phase transitions, lipid-protein interactions and membrane permeability. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has also been effectively used to study the conformations of cation mediators across membranes and to analyse in detail the transmembrane ionic motions at the mechanistic level.
Volume 134, 2022
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