Predictive character of solid state chemistry: Relation between structure, chemical bonding and physical properties of solids
Better models to interpret physical properties as well as use of new preparative techniques have allowed in recent years the development of the predictive character of solid state chemistry. Various examples of this evolution have been given in this paper.
It has been shown for instance that new materials (sometimes metastable ones) can be prepared, either by ion exchange or by chemical (or electrochemical) intercalation-deintercalation methods. The structural requirements of such reactions will be discussed. Another example is provided by the way one selects fast ionic conductors for energy storage. Various factors like amorphous nature, covalency, bond competition, presence of vacancies, influence of cationic lone pairs are discussed in the case of alkali ion or fluorine ion electrolytes.
Attention is also paid to the stabilization of unusual electronic configurations, particularly for high oxidation states of transition elements, on the base of relevant structural and bonding considerations.
In the field of magnetic properties, the possibility of obtaining new ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic materials is discussed, as well as the ability to modify 1D-or 2D-behaviour of chain-or layer-type materials.
Examples are also given showing how the performance of non-linear materials can be modified by playing with the factors determining structural distortions.
Optical properties of materials are also strongly influenced by structural and bonding properties. It will be shown for instance how thanks to the relevant choice of a host, the lattice as well as the chemical composition of the material may lead to pure monochromatic 4f7 UV emission in a Eu2+—doped material. Another example illustrates the possibility of obtaining a strong green emission in a[Ce3+, Tb3+]doped phosphate by choosing a formulation leading to best possible over-lapping of the Ce3+ emission spectrum under appropriate UV illumination and the5D4→7F5 excitation spectrum of Tb3+
Volume 134, 2022
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