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    • Keywords

       

      Crop improvement; crop productivity; genetic diversity; molecular markers; nutrient quality; plant breeding; stress tolerance

    • Abstract

       

      Crop improvement is a continuous effort, since some 10,000 years ago when primitive man made the transitionfrom hunting and foraging to domestication and crop cultivation. Since then, man-made interventions havechanged the entire scenario of crop evolution, by means of genetic alterations of plants and animals made tosatisfy man’s needs. The process of domestication has led to dramatic changes in their appearance, quality andproductivity that have contributed substantially to global food security. The tremendous decline in cultivableland, freshwater, and increasing risk of biotic and abiotic stress demand immediate attention on cropimprovement to cope with the higher demand of ~40% of the food by 2020. Therefore, plant genetic variationplays a key role in plant breeding for its improvement. Most of the genetic variations useful for cropimprovement have been deposited and maintained in seed gene banks across the world; they need to be broughtinto the mainstream of breeding lines. Recent advances and progress made in molecular markers have beensubstantial tools for deeper insights of genetics, and greatly complemented breeding strategies. Integration of thenext-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies with precise phenotyping, association mapping, proteome andmetabolome studies has increased the chances of finding candidate genes and their allelic variants controlling atrait of interest. Further, these functional markers (FMMs), genotype-by-sequencing and association mappingmethodologies have opened new avenues for identification of novel genetic resources (lines) that can facilitateaccelerated crop breeding programs for increased yield, high nutritional quality, and tolerance to a variety ofabiotic and biotic stresses. The details of popular molecular markers, advancement in the technologies andstrategies for crop diversity studies and their application in crop breeding programs are presented here.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      PALAKURTHI RAMESH1 GUNTI MALLIKARJUNA1 SHAIK SAMEENA1 ANAND KUMAR1 KOLA GURULAKSHMI1 B VIGNESWARA REDDY1 P CHANDRA OBUL REDDY2 AKILA CHANDRA SEKHAR1

      1. Molecular Genetics and Functional Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, India
      2. Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, India
    • Dates

       
  • Journal of Biosciences | News

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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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